Microbiological testing includes methods for the detection of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, yeasts or molds. These detection methods can be applied to various sample types, such as food, drinking water and dietary supplement.
Microbiological testing aims to determine the microbiological status of the tested sample. Thus, the presence of microbiological contaminations can be excluded and product safety can be guaranteed.a
The department of Microbiology is devoted in providing reliable testing services for diverse scopes of food matrices.
- Aerobic Plate Count
- Anaerobic Plate Count
- Sulfite reducing bacteria
- Yeast & Mold Counts
- Bacillus cereus
- Listeria monocytogens
- Listeria species
- Staphylococcus aureus
- Enterobacter sakazakii
- Clostridium perfringens
- Clostridium spp.
- Bacillus cereus Toxin
- Staph enterotoxins
Methods and Techniques
- FDA test methods
- ISO test methods
Molecular detection method
Staphylococcal species are Gram-positive, non motile, catalase-positive, small, spherical bacteria (cocci), which, on microscopic examination, appear in pairs, short chains, or bunched in grape-like clusters. Staphylococcus aureus may occur as a commensal on human skin; it also occurs in the nose frequently and throat less commonly. Staphylococcus aureus is found in foods and can make toxins (enterotoxins) that might not be destroyed by cooking, although the bacterium itself can be destroyed by heat. These toxins can cause nausea, stomach cramps, vomiting, and diarrhea. In more severe cases, the toxins may cause loss of body fluid (dehydration), headache, muscle cramps, and temporary Changes in blood pressure and heart rate.
Clostridium perfringens is an anaerobic (yet aerotolerant) Gram-positive, spore forming that produces enterotoxin. It causes gastroenteritis and enteritis necroticans or “pig-bel disease. If ingested with contaminated food in large number, C.perfringens replicate much more quickly that do most other bacteria.
Listeria monocytogens is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, facultative bacterium, motile by means of flagella, that is among the leading causes of death from food borne illness. It can cause two forms of disease. One can range from mild to intense symptoms of nausea, vomiting, aches, fever, and, sometimes, diarrhea, and usually goes away by itself. The other, more deadly form occurs when the infection spreads through the bloodstream to the nervous system (including the brain), resulting in meningitis and other potentially fatal problems. Pregnant women are more susceptible to Listeria infections than are most other people, and although they generally recover, their babies usually don’t survive.
Salmonella is a motile, non-spore forming, Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium. Salmonella causes gastrointestinal and thyphoidal illnesses. Many kinds of food can become contaminated with the first type, from meats and eggs to fruits and vegetables, and even dry foods, like spices and raw tree nuts.
Escherichia coli (commonly abbreviated E. coli) is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms). Most E. coli strains are harmless, but some serotypes can cause serious food poisoning in humans. The harmless strains are part of the normal flora of the gut, and can benefit their hosts by producing vitamin K2, and by preventing the establishment of pathogenic bacteria within the intestine. E. coli and related bacteria constitute about 0.1% of gut flora, and fecal-oral transmission is the major route through which pathogenic strains of the bacterium cause disease.
Bacillus cereus is a Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, endospore forming, and large rod. It is capable of producing toxin in the small intestine if consumed with contaminated food.